Grupo Fisiología de Organismos Acuáticos y Biotecnología Aplicada (FOA)

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DIRECTORA:

fernandez-gimenez

Dra. Analia Verónica Fernández Gimenez

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Investigadora Adjunta CONICET - Docente Regular UNMdP/Colegio Nacional A. Illia

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CODIRECTOR:

mallo

Dr. Juan Carlos Mallo

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Investigador CIC - Profesor Regular UNMdP

 

  

Investigadores:

haran

Dra. Nora Selma Haran

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Ayudante de Primera Exclusiva UNMdP

bas

Dra. Claudia Bas

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Investigadora Adjunta CONICET Ayudante de Primera Simple UNMdP

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Del Valle

Dra. Juana Cristina del Valle

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Jefe Trabajos Prácticos Exclusiva UNMdP

 

Guevara

Dra. Gabriela Guevara

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Investigadora Independiente CONICET - Ayudante de Primera Simple UNMDP

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Becarios Postdoctorales:

Laitano

Dra. María Victoria Laitano

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Becaria Postdoctoral CONICET

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pereira

Dra. Nair de los Angeles Pereira

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Becaria Postdoctoral CONICET

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Sacristan

Dr. Hernán Sacristán

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Becaria Postdoctoral CONICET

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Becarias Doctorales:

rodriguez

Lic. Yamila Rodriguez

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Becaria Doctoral CONICET

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atampiz

Lic. Bárbara Soto Atampiz

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Becaria Doctoral CONICET

 

 

Tesista de Grado

lazarte

Srta. María Eugenia Aguilar Lazarte

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Historia del Grupo:

 

El grupo de investigación Fisiología de Organismos Acuáticos (OCA 1215/12), es de reciente formación y está dedicado al estudio de la fisiología, en especial la inmunología y la nutrición, de organismos acuáticos, tales como crustáceos, moluscos y peces. Este enfoque nos permite entender los procesos bioquímicos y fisiológicos que rigen las adaptaciones a ambientes particulares. El conocimiento de los mecanismos bioquímicos referidos a la inmunidad y fisiología digestiva, permiten relacionar a las especies con el ambiente que ocupan en función de sus características fisioecológicas. En los últimos años se ha demostrado que el conocimiento de los procesos inmunológicos asociados a la fisiológia bioquímica permite determinar el estado de salud de los organismos. No obstante, en la mayoría de las investigaciones, la fisiología y la inmunológica han sido estudiadas por separado y poco se ha contemplado la vinculación entre los procesos metabólicos e inmunológicos, por lo tanto se considera que el estudio de la condición inmunológica de los organismos requiere de un enfoque integrador. Estudios recientes en nutrición enfatizan que además de satisfacer las necesidades nutricionales, el alimento debe modular varias funciones en el organismo y jugar un papel benéfico o adverso en el curso de las enfermedades. En los últimos años, los estudios de fisiología digestiva se han convertido en una de las áreas de investigación y desarrollo de mayor interés para la industria acuícola, por la importancia que la alimentación tiene en esta actividad. El principal ingrediente utilizado en la elaboración de los alimentos para acuicultura es la harina de pescado; en Argentina ésta es elaborada a partir de los descartes generados en los procesos de fileteado y eviscerado de las industrias transformadoras pesqueras y/o especies de bajo valor comercial. Uno de los principales objetivos de los tecnólogos de alimentos es fomentar el aprovechamiento de los descartes de la industria pesquera mediante métodos poco agresivos que permitan recuperar esta materia prima, elaborando productos que mantengan su valor nutricional, incrementando de esta manera su valor agregado. Los avances en ciencia y biotecnología abren nuevas oportunidades para mejorar las actividades productivas del país. En los últimos años, las integrantes de este grupo han investigado así como puesto a punto las técnicas para el estudio de la actividad de distintas enzimas en especies de organismos (Fernández Gimenez, 2013; Fernández Gimenez et al., 2009, 2014). En este sentido el principal objetivo del grupo de investigación es revalorizar subproductos de la industria pesquera a partir de estudios sobre la fisiología digestiva de las diferentes especies. Además se propone aplicar los conocimientos fisiológicos al campo biotecnológico de la industria alimentaria y la acuicultura nacional; promoviendo el mayor aprovechamiento de los descartes y desechos de la industria de la pesca y la disminución de los problemas sanitarios y perjuicios al medioambiente.

 

Líneas de Investigación:

 

  • Fisiología digestiva y respuesta inmune de crustáceos, moluscos y peces.

 

  • Biotecnología enzimática a partir de subproductos de la pesca.

 

10 últimas publicaciones:

 

1. Pereira, N.A.; Fernández Gimenez, A.V. 2016. Revalorización de subproductos de la pesca. Estado Actual en Argentina y otros países de América Latina. Editorial Académica Española-Verlag Editorial. 73pp. ISBN 978-3-639-47748-1. La industria procesadora pesquera genera una gran cantidad de subproductos que puede llegar a ser incluso superior al 50% del peso total de la materia prima procesada. Estos residuos son eliminados conjuntamente con los descartes, lo que constituye un serio problema medioambiental, o bien, son destinados a la generación de productos de bajo valor comercial, como harinas para peces o animales, ensilados de pescado, fertilizantes, etc. Estos subproductos y excedentes son susceptibles de ser aprovechados para su aplicación en usos viables. La biodiversidad, así como las adaptaciones fisiológicas y metabólicas que caracterizan a los organismos marinos, representan un gran potencial que, sumado a nuevos descubrimientos y aplicaciones en materia de biotecnología, abren expectativas para el uso de estos recursos. Este libro ofrece una perspectiva de la problemática de los usos de los subproductos de la pesca y la acuicultura en Argentina y la región de América Latina. Además ofrece también información sobre las posibilidades innovadoras de valorizarlos así como una visión desde el punto de vista bioético. La FAO fomenta el “crecimiento azul” como un enfoque coherente para la ordenación sostenible, integrada y sensible a los aspectos socioeconómicos de los océanos y humedales, prestando especial interés a la pesca de captura, la acuicultura, los servicios ecosistémicos, el comercio y la protección social de las comunidades costeras. El marco de “crecimiento azul” promueve la pesca y la acuicultura responsables y sostenibles mediante un enfoque integrado en el que participen todas las partes interesadas. En este sentido, la valorización de los subproductos permitirá revitalizar la economía de las comunidades rurales pesqueras, eliminar el problema medioambiental derivado de su incorrecto procesado y favorecer el desarrollo de industrias de base biotecnológica. En definitiva, la diversidad y abundancia de estos subproductos ofrecen grandes expectativas.

 

2. Pereira, N.A.; Sarasa, M.V.; Fernández Gimenez, A.V. 2016. A Comparative Study of Liposoluble Vitamin Effects in Decapod Crustacean with Emphasis in Argentine Shrimp Species. In: Crustaceans: Physiological Characteristics, Evolution and Conservation Strategies. Nova Publishers. Vitamins are important for normal growth and survival of living organisms and they are distributed in feedstuffs in small quantities. There are two groups of vitamins: water-soluble and fat-soluble. The last one includes vitamins A, D, E and K. This review summarizes several investigations carried out with the Argentine penaeoid shrimp species Pleoticus muelleri and Artemesia longinaris, which are distributed along South American Coastal, from 29°S to 49°S, regarding liposoluble vitamins, A, D, E and K, in the diets and metabolic responses. Growth, survival, and histological analysis were used as monitors of the nutritional value derived from vitamin deficiency. Liposoluble vitamins are also related to stress, antioxidant defense and immune response of shrimp. It compared these results with those reported for other crustaceans. This information increased knowledge about biology in Argentine shrimp species and it is important for the formulation of suitable feeds for shrimp. There is, thus need to formulate an effective diet for shrimp in culture conditions, to provide not only macro nutrients, including protein and lipid, but also micronutrients such as vitamins that support optimal growth of shrimp.

 

3. Laitano, M.V.; Fernández Gimenez, A. 2016. Are mussels always the best bioindicators? Comparative study on biochemical responses of three marine invertebrate species to chronic port pollution. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. doi 10.1007/s00128-016-1839-y Bivalves have traditionally been considered good bioindicators due to their sensitivity to pollution, among other features. This characteristic is shared by several other non-bivalve species as well, though studies in this respect remain scarce. This work aims to compare biomarker sensitivity to chronic port pollution among three intertidal invertebrate species with good bioindicator characteristics. Mussels’ immunological (phenoloxidase and peroxidases) and biotransformation (glutathione-Stransferase) responses were contrasted against those of limpets and barnacles. The three species under study evidenced activity of all the enzymes measured, although with differences. Barnacle Balanus glandula was the most sensitive species showing pollution modulation of the three enzymes, which suggests that mussels would not always be the best bioindicator species among marine invertebrates depending on the responses that are assessed.

 

4. Pereira, N.; Fernández Gimenez, A. 2016. Exogenous Enzymes in Dairy Technology: Acidic Proteases from Shrimp Pleoticus muelleri's Discards and their Use as Milk- Clotting for Cheese Manufacture. International Journal of food Science and Technology. doi 10.1111/IJFS13285 Argentina is the seventh largest world producer of cheese. Owing to the profitability of this industry, more than a thousand of dairy companies and farms exclusively produce cheeses, and, thus, this activity utilises 42% of total raw milk production of the country. Due to the increase in cheese demand, and because calf rennet is relatively expensive, this has motivated the study of new sources of proteases due to the potential use in biotechnological processes. Previously, crustacean proteases have been considered as good rennet substitutes for milk coagulation during the cheese making process. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterise acidic proteases obtained from Pleoticus muelleri discards and their proteolytic capability as well as their potential use as a milk-clotting agent. The activity of aspartic proteases and the satisfactory acceptation by the taste panel for cheese made with shrimp’s enzymes suggest that P. muelleri proteins offer a high potential for use in dairy biotechnological processes with potential use as milk-clotting agents for cheese making.

 

5. Fernández Gimenez, A.; Pereira, N.A.; Sarasa, M.V. 2016. Liposoluble vitamins in crustacean feed: metabolic and histological responses. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 54: 297-308. Argentina is the seventh largest world producer of cheese. Owing to the profitability of this industry, more than a thousand of dairy companies and farms exclusively produce cheeses, and, thus, this activity utilises 42% of total raw milk production of the country. Due to the increase in cheese demand, and because calf rennet is relatively expensive, this has motivated the study of new sources of proteases due to the potential use in biotechnological processes. Previously, crustacean proteases have been considered as good rennet substitutes for milk coagulation during the cheese making process. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterise acidic proteases obtained from Pleoticus muelleri discards and their proteolytic capability as well as their potential use as a milk-clotting agent. The activity of aspartic proteases and the satisfactory acceptation by the taste panel for cheese made with shrimp’s enzymes suggest that P. muelleri proteins offer a high potential for use in dairy biotechnological processes with potential use as milk-clotting agents for cheese making.

 

6. Rodriguez, Y.E.; Pereira, N.A.; Haran, N.S.; Mallo, J.C.; Fernandez Gimenez, A.V. 2016. A new approach to fishery waste revalorization to enhance Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) digestion process. Aquaculture Nutrition. doi 10.1111/ANU12510 (in press) The main goal of this research was to analyse in vitro compatibility of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) digestive proteinases and enzymes recovered from species comprising fishery waste as Pleoticus muelleri, Artemesia longinaris and Patagonotothen ramsayi. It evaluated the use of exogenous enzymes as feed supplements to increase digestion efficiency in tilapia fingerlings and juveniles (3.5 ± 0.11 g and 11.6 ± 1.5 g, respectively). We successfully have obtained proteinases from fishery waste as source of exogenous enzymes. P. muelleri and A. longinaris enzymes had more activity of acid and alkaline proteinases than P. ramsayi. SDS-PAGE gels demonstrated that Nile tilapia digestive proteinases keep their activity when combined with each exogenous proteinase. Exogenous enzymes varied in their ability to enhance hydrolysis of different feed ingredients. P. muelleri by-products are the best candidates to be employed as feed supplements for tilapia juveniles. Enzymes from this by-product did not affect the activity and integrity of fish digestive enzymes, improved the hydrolysis of different protein sources (fish meal, squid meal, shrimp meal and soybean meal), and maintained its activity after being exposed to high temperatures and acid pHs. Our findings are applicable to other places where O. niloticus is raised utilizing local fishery waste, and also to different cultured species.

 

7. Fernández Gimenez, A.V.; Haran, N.S.; Pereira, N.A; Acuña, F. 2014. First report of phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities in two intertidal sea anemone species of Argentina. Invertebrate Survival Journal, 11: 192-196 The presence of immune responses within sea anemone species has received little attention, in comparison with coral species, so we decided to investigate the phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities in ectoderm, endoderm and tentacles of actiniarians Aulactinia marplatensis and Bunodosoma zamponii, the most common species in intertidal zone of Mar del Plata, Argentina. Enzyme activities were detected in all tissues evaluated with some differences among tissues and species. Phenoloxidase and peroxidase activities are associated with the mechanisms of innate immunity in invertebrates, and the high production of phenoloxidase observed in B. zamponii would provide a continual level of resistance to infection and this species to be less susceptible to stress and disease, compared to A. marplatensis. This study, represents the first step toward specific immune information about the mentioned sea anemone species of Argentina, and thus permits prediction of the potential effects of environmental factors on immune response.

 

8. Fernández Gimenez, A.V. 2013. Digestive Physiology of Crustacean with Emphasis in Decapod Species of Argentina. Journal of Shellfish Research, 32(3): 767-777. This review has the available information about the digestive physiology and morphology of three decapod species from Argentina: Pleoticus muelleri, Artemesia longinaris, and Neohelice granulata. The anatomy of the foregut may be modified in closely related species with similar feeding habits; however, the main features of the decapod crustacean digestive tract are similar to other species. Crustaceans express a set of highly active digestive enzymes that hydrolyze the major food items and include proteinases, lipases, esterases, and glucanases. The close relationship between diet and the range of digestive enzymes produced is well documented; however, digestive responses to specific nutrients differ widely among the species. Variations in digestive enzyme expression during early development reflect changes in digestive capabilities and can be used to identify early developmental feeding transitions. This information provides a deeper insight into nutrition, dietary preferences, and strategies of resource utilization, making possible the development of new aquacultural practices and providing data about the ecological niche that species occupy in aquatic systems. There is no doubt that the occurrence and activity of digestive enzymes are influenced by many internal and external factors, such as diet, molting, and development. The research of three Argentine decapod species is discussed in this review and provides a better understanding of basic digestive physiology. This information important to investigations of nutrition and feeding ecology of crustaceans.

 

9. Pereira, N.A.; Fernández Gimenez, A.V.; Harán, N.S.; Fenucci, J.L. 2013. Alkaline phosphatase in shrimp Artemesia longinaris. Response to vitamin D in diet. International Journal of Aquatic Science, 4(2): 3-13. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the alkaline phosphatase activity in haemocytes and midgut gland of the penaeid shrimp Artemesia longinaris in relationship with different doses of vitamin D3 in feed and to estimate its potential use as biomarker for nutritional stress. A nine-week trial was carried out with juvenile shrimp in aquaria. Animals were fed semipurified feeds with increasing levels of vitamin D3 (0; 0.2; 0.375; 0.75 and 1 mg vitamin D3 kg-1 feed). Treatments without vitamin D revealed the significantly highest protein content in haemocytes (P<0.05), as the lowest values were recorded on 0.2 and 1 mg vitamin D kg-1 treatments. The analysis of protein content of midgut glands revealed a maximum content for diets containing 0.2 and 0.75 mg Vitamin D kg-1. The optimum pH value for alkaline phosphatase in midgut gland was 9.5. The results show the occurrence of alkaline phosphatase activity in the tissues of shrimp A. longinaris, describing higher enzymatic activity values in haemocytes than in midgut glands. The highest enzyme activity in haemocytes was observed for shrimp fed without vitamin D (1.235 abs min-1 mg protein-1), however, in midgut gland, the activity varied from 0.141 to 0.297 abs min-1 mg protein-1, with the highest values on 0 and 1 mg vitamin D kg- 1. Histological analysis of the midgut gland confirmed a good health of the shrimp fed 0.375 and 0.750 mg vitamin D kg-1 and were used as optimal values for determining enzymatic activity. Shrimp fed diets lacking of vitamin D or 1 mg kg-1 showed signs of malnourishment. The results indicate that alkaline phosphatase activity in A. longinaris was influenced by dietary vitamin D and may be used as a biomonitor of nutritional stress.

 

10. Lancia, J.P.; Fernández Gimenez, A.V.; Bas, C.; Spivak, E. 2012. Adaptative differences in digestive enzyme activity in the crab Neohelice granulata in relation to sex and habitat. Journal of Crustacean Biology, 32(6): 940-948. Neohelice granulata (Dana, 1851) is a semi-terrestrial burrowing crab that inhabits estuaries and saltmarshes feeding on grasses or sediment depending on the microhabitat they occupy (vegetated saltmarsh or bare mudflat). Specific cellulolytic, amylolytic, and proteolytic enzyme activities were analyzed in midgut gland homogenates of males and females from each microhabitat fed in the laboratory with Spartina densiflora leaves and sediment, respectively, in order to detect sex, food and microhabitat related differences. The presence of β-1,4- glucosidase, endo-β-1,4-glucanase, α amylase, trypsin and chymotrypsin were confirmed. Specific cellulolytic activity was higher in crabs fed on leaves than in those fed on sediment or in no fed controls and variable differences between sexes were observed. Specific amylase activity of crabs fed on leaves was the lowest recorded. Trypsin and chymotrypsin specific activities were higher in saltmarsh crabs fed on leaves than in mudflat crabs fed on sediment. Different mechanisms of enzyme regulation to explain the observed differences among groups were suggested. Additionally, differences between sexes suggest different metabolic needs related to gonad maturation. It is concluded that N. granulata has the ability to adapt digestive enzyme production to support its physiological and metabolic needs based on the different food sources available at each microhabitat.

 

 

Transferencia:

 

  • Servicios Tecnológico de Alto CONICET (STAN), título del servicio "Enzimas no tradicionales para la industria alimentaria".

 

  • Servicios Tecnológico de Alto Nivel CONICET (STAN), título del servicio "Optimización de la calidad nutricional de alimentos para el cultivo de peces y crustáceos". Finalista Concurso IB50K 2016 de Planes de Negocio. Innovaciones con

 

  • Base Tecnológica. Proyecto BIOENZIMAR- Biotecnología sustentable. Instituto Balseiro, Bariloche, Argentina.